The Message of the Cross — 1 Corinthians 1: 17-25

Is the Gospel lame nonsense? Does it need help from clever, well-connected people to do its work?

No. In this passage the apostle is in fact asserting the absolute sufficiency of the gospel message to do the work of building the church.

So why does Paul talk about the gospel, and gospel preaching, as foolishness?

Paul has to deal with one of the many problems that the Corinthians were happily creating for themselves. In too many ways these people, whom the apostle loved, were seriously out of control. They knew the gospel, but their mistaken views of the liberty that the gospel brings was weakening their church and their church’s witness.

At Corinth, divisions, boastful immorality, disdain for fellow believers, and spiritual pride were tearing the church apart. Paul begins in these verses to deal with their pride.

Firstly he brushes aside water baptism. He did not belittle the sacrament, far from it. But some people, it seems, were engaging in one-up-man-ship. The more important the baptiser, the more important the baptised, or so they claimed.

Paul had no interest in playing such games. He had not been sent to make water baptism the big issue, but rather to preach the gospel. It is not water baptism that determines a person’s place in the kingdom, but the gospel work of Jesus Christ.

The gospel is the great leveller. We all had rebelled against our creator and are all worthy of nothing except condemnation. Every Christian was once dead in trespasses and sins–without God and without hope in the world.

We were lost and would have perished in our sins, but it pleased God to save. God saved, not by sending an instruction book for self-improvement, but by sending his only Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, who for the salvation of his people, was born a human being, lived a perfectly good life to replace the bad lives of his people, and he died taking responsibility for the sins of his people. He rose to life again to give eternal life to his people.

Having done all that, he then gives repentance and faith to these people in order to ensure that they would trust him and be justified before God.

Nothing was left to chance; nothing was left for our sinful selves to achieve. Salvation comes to sinful people by the love of God, through the work of Christ, in the power of the Holy Spirit.

The gospel excludes boasting — unless it is boasting in the Lord Jesus Christ.

This is why Paul says that Christ sent him to make the gospel known, not in the wisdom of mere human reasoning, less the cross of Christ be made void,… of no effect,… empty.

There is a form of ‘wisdom’ that would make the gospel empty. Paul is not against preachers using their brains. He is not against carefully and prayerfully prepared sermons.

Paul is not against a thorough academic training for preachers. The ‘wisdom of reasoning’ that he rejects is that sort of reasoning that people value when they do not trust Jesus Christ.

As he writes:

The message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to those who are being saved it is the power of God.

The problem of evangelism is not the intellectual quality of the message. It is not the fact that the message is really foolish. The problem of evangelism is the un-renewed minds of those who hear the message.

Paul later refers to this situation when he says that the unregenerate mind is at war with God (1 Cor. 2:14), and cannot and will not receive the gospel because the gospel is only accepted by a sinner when the Spirit of God changes the heart and mind of that sinner.

When this work of grace — this work of regeneration — comes to a sinner, they have the saving work of Christ applied to them. God accepts Christ’s death as their death, his good life a replacement for their bad life, and Christ’s resurrection ensures that they will a raised from the dead and acquitted on the day of judgment.

This is very important. We do not fix the problem of unbelief by trying to make the gospel more appealing to the mind of the unbeliever. We are not to force the message of the church to the mould of the world.

That would be to empty out the message of the cross of Christ. We cannot make the gospel more acceptable to the non-Christian by our clever ideas to improve the message, because the cross of Christ is necessarily offensive to anyone who is not born again. Any change we make to the message empties it.

Now, this was the trap into which the church at Corinth was in danger of falling.

Many in Corinth at that time thought the message of Jesus was too bland, too plain, too last week (compare 1 Cor. 10:7-10). They wanted the message of the church to be intellectually impressive for the outsider. They wanted it to fit the spirit of their age.

Now, this is a very different attitude to that of Paul when he says that he becomes all things to all men (1 Cor. 9) . Paul worked hard to understand the people to whom he took the gospel. His approach in presenting the gospel might vary according to the background of the people he met. But the gospel message he did not change at all.

Presbyterianism has experienced this gospel-emptying unfaithfulness in its own history. Many Presbyterian churches in the past have become Unitarian through their accommodation to the wisdom of the age. How did this happen?

After the gospel had brought salvation to sinners, it also began the work of conforming people to the mind of Christ. Over the years, public morals were improved, and good morals were encouraged. When moral people saw the difference between themselves (good Presbyterians) and the less moral, they begin to think that they were not the ones who needed Jesus as saviour but only needed to follow him as an example. With the growth of education (Presbyterians love education) they also began to doubt miracles as a hangover from a less informed, superstitious age.

The result was that they no longer saw the need for a saviour who is both God and man, neither did they see a need for his substitutionary death, nor his rising from the dead to deal with sin. The Corinthians were heading this way as 1 Cor. 15 suggests.

The Church of England also suffered from this attitude in the nineteenth century. The Rev. Frederick William Robertson hated the gospel of Jesus. He worked hard to empty the cross of Christ. He spoke on this passage in July 1851 and did so in order to conceal the message of the cross. He taught from this passage that Jesus is our human example, and a human example is better than impersonal signs and abstract philosophies. That’s all.

So Paul attacked this gospel-emptying-attitude with ironic force. He uses the words ‘wise’ and ‘foolish’, ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ to convey deliberately opposite meanings.

Where is the wise, where is the scribe, where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of world. For by the wisdom of God, the world by its wisdom did not know God, but it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save those who believe.

The wisdom of this age is foolishness. Scholars are pretty good at describing the disaster of the human condition, but they have no real idea of its origin or its cure.

  • Psychology tell sufferers to stop believing the lies that they tell themselves, and to believe the lies that the psychologist tells them instead.
  • World religions, even some that go under the name of Christian, offer programs for self-improvement (life is suffering, suffering comes from desire, reduce desire) or promote the benefits of community support.
  • Some scientists tells us that life came about by a process of time and chance and that all human emotions, human will and human development came as a result of environmental conditioning and chemical reactions.
  • Some educationists claim that, if people are sufficiently informed about drug use, or domestic violence, or sexually transmitted diseases, then all will be well.

Every failure of these sorts of programs is met with calls for more money for further research and education.

All human programs for self-improvement fail, because they all begin with the mistaken view that people are basically good. The only problem is their economic, political, social circumstances or their poor education.

Foolishness. The ‘wise’ of this world will not and cannot arrive at the solution by their own wisdom.

What these wise theories and programs could not do, God did by sending his Son to rescue the hopeless.

Jesus came into the worse of circumstances, suffered the abuse of sinners, was falsely accused and condemned, was subjected to a criminal’s death by public execution, and yet by these means and by this person, God made foolish the wisdom of this age.

The rebel world thought it had sorted the problem of Jesus and had removed the inconvenient preacher. But God overturned that ‘wisdom’ by raising the Lord Jesus from the dead. The resurrection means that the sins of those for whom Jesus died are dead and gone.

God also made many of his enemies his friends by Jesus Christ. By the resurrection of Jesus, God brings renewed life to those who trust Christ. He gives new attitudes to bad people. By Jesus people receive a new relationship with our creator, freedom from condemnation, and everlasting life.

What we could not and would not do by our wisdom, God accomplished in wisdom by his Son.

The Jews were offended by the cross–cursed is anyone who is hanged on a tree.

The Greeks thought that the resurrection from the dead was a joke.

But God saves those whom his calls by the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

This is the message of the cross. God forgives sins in the name and authority of Jesus Christ on the basis of the things that Jesus alone did. In this way God destroys the wisdom of the wise and the understanding of the prudent. He brings some to repentance and faith through the gospel message, thereby changing their minds and attitudes. Others reject that message, stay in their sin and reap the consequences of rebellion.

So why does Paul call the preaching of this message, ‘foolishness’?

He is using the attitude of some in Corinth against them.

They had called preaching foolishness, but Paul shows that this alleged foolishness is God’s way of achieving what all the wise ones of the world continually failed to do. Gospel preaching gives hope and safety to sinful, condemned people.

Paul tells us that the alleged foolishness of God—gospel preaching—is wiser than the wisdom of this age. The weakness of God that is allegedly seen in the message of the cross is stronger than the might of this age.

The church must not get too clever or sophisticated for itself. It must not say to itself that no one will listen to gospel preaching today and suggest that we must replace it with stories, or personal testimonies, or film nights, or social advice.

The word that Paul uses for ‘preaching’ is that which denotes a herald. A herald was the messenger of the king. The herald was to deliver the message that the king entrusted to him, and the herald was to deliver that message with all the authority of the one who sent him.

Woe to that herald who messed with the King’s message. Woe to the people who refused to hear that message.

Jews demand a sign, Greeks seek for wisdom, but we preach Christ crucified … the wisdom of God and the power of God.


Worship: sound preaching

Preaching might be regarded as an unpopular activity these days. The Bible idea of preaching is making known true-truth in an authoritative way. This truth comes to people in an old book, a book that needs to be read and studied and thought through with care and attention. This truth needs to be declared with authority. Again, the truth that is to be preached concerns the Lord Jesus Christ; how he has acted to bring us back to our creator God, to the God we have offended by our sin, to the God who will judge all people according to their deeds, to the God who loved the world in a particular way. God’s love comes to people only through the life, death and rising of Jesus Christ. These truths only come to us from the Bible, and they must be shown to be true from the Bible.

Many people today don’t like to be told. We are all wise enough for ourselves. We prefer stories with ambiguous endings. We like to keep our options open. We don’t like to engage in hard thinking.

As preaching is unpopular with people, so too are preachers tempted to shy away from it. To encourage people to gather at church, ministers think their churches must provide something attractive, something to compete with the wide, varying and shiny alternatives – something other than preaching.

It is interesting how the Lord Jesus fits, or doesn’t fit, into these thoughts. He was followed by large crowds, often because he showed love with extraordinary power – it seems to me that in the three years of Jesus’ ministry, more wonders were performed by him than are recorded in all the Old Testament. But Jesus, we are told in the Gospels, was focused on preaching and teaching the word with a particular emphasis on the good news. Jesus didn’t come in order to gain popularity, but to speak Bible truth about himself and his work of saving people from their sin. He spoke with great authority and purpose. Whenever his disciples got carried away by the popularity that Jesus seemed to enjoy, Jesus reminded them that he would be betrayed, rejected and crucified by these people and their leaders. It was only sometime after Jesus’ resurrection that these men got the idea.

In brief, the apostles were focused upon the teaching (doctrine) of the word, that written word we know as the Bible. This word reveals Christ Jesus, who is both Lord and Saviour. These men passed this emphasis on preaching to others who would continue this gospel work after the apostles died. Paul told Timothy to preach the word, when people like it and when they don’t. The preaching was for conviction, rebuke and consolation with all patience and doctrine (2 Tim 4:2). Again the aim is to make the good news of Jesus known from every and any part of the Bible. This requires teaching things about who God is, his purpose in creating us and the universe, the origin of our bad attitudes, what his relationship with Israel was like, but all these things are to be taught and preached so that we understand who Jesus is, what he has done, and what it all means for people like us.

Gospel preaching will only be popular when people come under conviction of sin and of God’s mercy to sinners in Jesus Christ. This conviction is the work of the Holy Spirit. We need, as members of Christ, to be in prayer for this convicting work amongst ourselves and the wider community. Preaching is a vital, a central, part of worship because of its focus on content (the Bible) and its application. Worship without content is mute, meaningless ritual.